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Applied Behavior Analysis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Applied Behavior Analysis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

of: Johnny L. Matson

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9781441900883 , 270 Pages

Format: PDF

Copy protection: DRM

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's

Price: 83,29 EUR



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Applied Behavior Analysis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders


 

Matson_FM_O.pdf

1

Chapter 1

1

History and Overview

1

Beginning

1

Watson

1

Skinner

1

Timing Is Everything

1

Child Treatment

1

Autism and the Spectrum

1

Heller

1

Kanner

1

Asperger

1

ABA and ASD

1

JEAB

1

Ferster and DeMeyer

1

BRAT

1

Wolf, Risley, and Mees

1

Costello

1

Eysenck

1

JABA

1

Azrin

1

Lovaas

1

EIBI

1

FA and EFA

1

Certification

1

Overview

1

References

1

Matson_Ch02_O.pdf

21

Chapter 2

21

Applied Behavior Analysis and Its Application to Autism and Autism Related Disorders

21

Introduction

21

Conceptual Basis and Foundation of Applied Behavior Analysis

21

Concepts and Application

23

Consequence: Punishment and Punishment-Based Procedures

23

Positive Punishment

23

Negative Punishment

24

Consequence: Reinforcement and Reinforcement-Based Procedures

24

Token Economy

25

Extinction

25

Differential Reinforcement

26

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

26

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior

28

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates

28

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior

29

Thinning Differential Reinforcement Schedules

30

Shaping and Chaining

31

Antecedent Approaches to Treatment

31

Establishing Operations

31

Stimulus Control

32

Prompt Procedures

33

Choice

34

Combining Antecedent and Consequence-Based Components

34

ABA-Based Comprehensive Approaches to Autism Treatment: Intervention Programs that Utilize Applied Behavior Analysis Procedures

35

UCLA Young Autism Project

35

Pivotal Response Training

35

Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-Handicapped Children

36

Future Directions and Summary

36

References

37

Matson_Ch03_O.pdf

39

Chapter 3

39

Assessment Methods

39

Phases of Behavioural Assessment

39

Preassessment

39

Identification of Priority Targets for Behaviour Change

40

Definition and Measurement of Baseline Levels of Target Behaviours

41

Defining Target Behaviours

42

Measuring Baseline Levels of the Target Behaviour

42

General Considerations

42

Measures of Behaviour

43

Observation and Recording Methods

44

Continuous Recording Methods

44

Sampling Methods

45

Comparison of Sampling Methods

46

Evaluating the Accuracy and Reliability of Data Collected by Direct Observation

49

Evaluating Functional Relationships Between environmental Conditions and Target Behaviours

51

Goals of Functional Assessment

51

Methods of Indirect Functional Assessment

52

Semi-structured Interviews

53

Reliability of Questionnaire Methods of Functional Assessment

53

Rating Scales

54

Reliability and Subscale Internal Consistency of Rating Scales for Functional Assessment

54

Direct Observation (Descriptive) Methods

55

Experimental Functional Assessment (Functional Analysis)

62

Structured Descriptive and Context Sampling Approaches

65

Convergent and Predictive (Treatment) Validity of Functional Assessment Methods

65

Functional Assessment: A Clinical Approach

67

Functional Assessment: Concluding Comments

67

Assessing Stimulus Preferences and Effectiveness of Potential Reinforcers

68

Testing the Behaviour Change Hypotheses Developed

68

Assessment Methods: Concluding Comments

69

References

69

Matson_Ch04_O.pdf

73

Chapter 4

73

Intervention and Treatment Methods for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

73

Introduction

73

Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)

73

Method

74

Functional Analysis

74

Selecting Target Behaviors

75

Teaching Procedures

75

Intervention Strategies Based on Applied Behavior Analysis

76

Discrete Trial Training (DTT)

76

Evidence Base

76

Incidental Teaching (IT)

77

Evidence Base

77

Pivotal Response Training (PRT)

78

Evidence Base

78

Verbal Behavior (VB)

78

Evidence Base

79

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

79

Evidence Base

80

TEACCH

81

Evidence Base

81

Future Research Agenda

82

References

83

Matson_Ch05_O.pdf

88

Chapter 5

88

Differential Diagnosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

88

Differential Diagnosis and Autism

88

A Spectrum of Symptoms

89

Definition and Diagnostic Criteria

89

Autism

89

Asperger’s Disorder

90

PDD-NOS

90

Core Symptoms

90

Communication Skills

90

Social Skills

91

Stereotypy

91

Comorbid Diagnoses

91

Intellectual Disability

92

Language Disorder

92

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

93

Assessing ASD Spectrum

93

Assessment Tools

94

Autism Behavior Checklist

94

Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised

95

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Generic

97

Autism Spectrum Disorders – Diagnostic

98

The Childhood Autism Rating Scale

98

Gilliam Autism Rating Scale

100

Checklist for Autism in Toddlers

102

PDD Behavior Inventory

104

Social Responsiveness Scale

105

General Assessment Discussion

106

Conclusion and Future Directions

107

Prescriptive Function of Diagnosis

108

Funding for Treatment

109

References

109

Matson_Ch06_O.pdf

114

Chapter 6

114

Communication

114

Introduction

114

Communication Impairment in Children with ASD

115

Historical Perspective

118

Contemporary Perspective

119

Multimodal Communication

120

Functional Curriculum

122

Flexibly Structured Teaching Arrangements

124

Evidence–Based Practice

126

Stakeholder Perspectives

126

Use of Empirically Supported Procedures

127

Educational and Clinical Expertise

128

Summary

128

References

129

Matson_Ch07_O.pdf

133

Chapter 7

133

Social Skills and Autism: Understanding and Addressing the Deficits

133

Introduction

133

Origin of Deficit: Theory of Mind

133

The Physiology of Social Deficits

134

Amygdala–Fusiform System

134

Vagal Nerve Dysfunction

134

The Challenges of Learning and Teaching Social Skills

134

Basic Components of Social Skills

135

Qualitative Aspects of Social Behaviors

135

Social Comprehension

135

Video Modeling

135

Social Stories

136

Rule Cards

138

Summary of Strategies to Build Social Comprehension

139

New Directions

139

Perspective Taking

139

Problem Solving

140

Joint Attention

141

Importance of Joint Attention

141

Teaching Joint Attention

141

Peers: Building Social Bridges to Other Children

142

Peers as Agents of Change

142

Other Methods

143

Benefits to Participants

144

Summary of Historical Peer Training Approaches

144

Peers as Agents of Change: Current Trends

144

Generality and Social Validity

144

Summary

145

References

145

Matson_Ch08_O.pdf

149

Chapter 8

149

Rituals and Stereotypies

149

What Are Stereotypies and Rituals?

149

Why Do Children with Autism Engage in Stereotypies and Rituals?

150

Developing Interventions for Stereotypy and Other Repetitive Behaviors

151

Eliminating or Attenuating the Sensory Consequences of Stereotypy

151

Developing Alternative Skill Repertoires

152

Reinforcement for the Non-occurrence of Stereotypy

155

Punishment

156

Conclusions and Recommendations

156

References

157

Matson_Ch09_O.pdf

160

Chapter 9

160

Self–injury

160

Self–injury

160

The Operant Functions of SIB

160

Behavioral Assessment of SIB

161

Indirect Assessment

161

Descriptive Analysis

163

Functional Analyses

165

Behavioral Treatment

167

Extinction

168

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior

169

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

170

Noncontingent Reinforcement

171

Skill Acquisition of Replacement Behavior

172

Punishment

172

Conclusion

173

References

173

Matson_Ch10_O.pdf

177

Chapter 10

177

Aggression and Noncompliance

177

Measurement

177

Aggression

177

Noncompliance

178

Functional Behavioral Assessment and Functional Analysis

178

Functional Behavioral Assessment

178

Functional Analysis

179

Evidence-Based and Empirically Supported Intervention

180

Social Positive Reinforcement

180

Social Negative Reinforcement

182

Automatic Reinforcement

183

Intervention Recommendations

184

Establishing Operations

184

Intervention Integrity

184

Social Validity

185

Restrictive Procedures

185

Skill Building Intervention

186

Summary

186

References

187

Matson_Ch11_O.pdf

190

Chapter 11

190

Adaptive and Self-Help Skills

190

Introduction

190

Adaptive Skills Deficits in ASD

191

Assessment of Adaptive Skills

191

Standardized Assessments

192

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

192

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II)

192

The American Association of Mental Retardation’s Adaptive Behavior Scale – Residential and Community, Second Edition

193

Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised

193

Naturalistic Observation

194

Selection of Skills to Train

194

Methods for Training Adaptive Skills

195

Environmental Manipulations

196

Visual Supports

196

Adaptation of Physical Environment

197

Prompting Procedures

197

Graduated Guidance

198

Least-to-most Prompting

199

Prompt Fading

200

Task Analysis

200

Shaping

201

Chaining

201

Errorless Learning

202

Maintenance and Generalization

203

Conclusion

204

References

204

Matson_Ch12_O.pdf

208

Chapter 12

208

Generalization and Maintenance

208

Introduction

208

What is Generalization and Maintenance?

208

Discrimination or Generalization?

209

Generalization

209

Desirability of Generalized Behavior Change

211

Generalization and ASD

211

Current Practices

212

Strategies to Promote Generalization

212

Sequential Modification

213

Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies

213

Train Sufficient Exemplars

215

Train Loosely

215

Use Indiscriminable Contingencies

216

Program Common Stimuli

216

Mediate Generalization

217

Train to Generalize

218

Planning for Generalized Outcomes

219

Case Example

221

Client Information

221

Referral Question

221

Behavior Assessment

221

Intervention

221

Planning for Generalization

222

Results

222

Concluding Summary and Recommendations

222

References

224

Matson_Ch13_O.pdf

226

Chapter 13

226

Training Issues Unique to Autism Spectrum Disorders

226

Training Issues Unique to Autism Spectrum Disorders

226

Issue One: Workforce and Organizational Challenges

227

Designing Effective Training

227

Maintaining Staff Performance

228

Managing Performance Problems

228

Issue Two: Detection and Management of Subtle Behavioral Patterns

229

Issue Three: Promoting Consistency Across Providers and Environments

232

Consistency Across Caregivers and Environments

232

Consistency During Major Transition Periods

233

Summary and Conclusions

234

References

234

Matson_Ch14_O.pdf

237

Chapter 14

237

Parent Training Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

237

Background of Parent Training Interventions

237

Development of Parent Training Interventions

237

Roots in Operant Conditioning

237

Rationale for Including Parents

238

Role of Parent Psychosocial Functioning

238

Research Methodology

238

Overview of Current ASD Parent Training Research and Practice

239

Content of Parent Training Interventions

239

Discrete Trial Training (DTT)

239

Naturalistic Behavioral Methods

239

Integrated Developmental and Behavioral Methods

240

Cognitive-Behavioral Methods

241

Delivering Parent Training Interventions

243

Individual Family Format

243

Group Format

243

Characteristics of Parent Participants

243

Characteristics of Effective Parent Educators

244

Benefits of Parent Training

244

Efficiency of Services

244

Child Improvements

244

Parent–Child Interactions and Family Functioning

244

Examples of Recent Parent Training Research

245

PT Content Example #1: Early Start Denver Model

245

Participants

245

Procedures

245

Results

245

Implications

246

PT Content Example #2: Building Confidence – Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

246

Participants

246

Procedures

247

Results

247

Implications

247

PT Delivery Format Example #1: Parent–Professional Partnership Model of PT in Pivotal Response Training

248

Participant Families

248

PT Content: Pivotal Response Training (PRT)

248

“Partnership” PT Condition

248

“Clinician-Directed” PT Condition

248

Results

249

Implications

249

PT Delivery Format Example #2: Group PT in Pivotal Response Training

249

Participant Families

249

Group Parent Education Workshop

249

Results

250

Implications

250

Current Parent Training Practices in Community Settings

250

Implications and Future Directions

252

References

253

Matson_Index_O.pdf

258

Chapter 1

8

History and Overview

8

Beginning

8

Watson

8

Skinner

9

Timing Is Everything

10

Child Treatment

10

Autism and the Spectrum

11

Heller

11

Kanner

11

Asperger

12

ABA and ASD

12

JEAB

13

Ferster and DeMeyer

13

BRAT

14

Wolf, Risley, and Mees

14

Costello

15

Eysenck

16

JABA

16

Azrin

16

Lovaas

17

EIBI

17

FA and EFA

18

Certification

18

Overview

19

References

19