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Psychological and Political Strategies for Peace Negotiation - A Cognitive Approach

of: Francesco Aquilar, Mauro Galluccio

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9781441974303 , 258 Pages

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Psychological and Political Strategies for Peace Negotiation - A Cognitive Approach


 

Foreword

8

Preface

12

Why This Book on Psychology and Politics of Peace Negotiation: Objectives and Approach

12

Acknowledgements

18

Contents

20

Contributors

22

About the Editors

28

Chapter 1: Changing Minds: How the Application of the Multiple Intelligences (MI) Framework Could Positively Contribute to the Theory and Practise of International Negotiation

30

Mind Changing

30

Two Instances of Mind Changing

30

The Forms and Contents of the Human Mind

32

Seven Mind Changers

33

Levels of Analysis

36

Within an Individual Mind

36

One Individual Affecting the Mind of Another

36

Teaching and Training

37

Mind Change in the Political Sphere

37

Mind Change in the Cultural Sphere

38

Real World Interventions

38

Resistances

39

Multiple Intelligences Framework

39

International Negotiation and Multiple Intelligences Framework

40

References

43

Chapter 2: International Negotiations, Evolution, and the Value of Compassion

44

Introduction

44

The Challenges of the Evolved Brain and the Evolutionary Processes

46

Social Mentalities

47

Evolution, Culture and Learning: The Biopsychosocial Model

50

The Cognitive World

52

Inter-group Conflicts

53

Competitions and Conflicts: Negotiating to Get the Best Deal for Oneself

53

The Problem of Leaders

54

The Pressures on Negotiators

56

Solutions

58

Socio-political

58

Training

59

Short Term Versus Long Term

60

Conclusions

61

References

62

Chapter 3: Personal Schemas in the Negotiation Process: A Cognitive Therapy Approach

65

Negotiation and the View of the Self

66

Negotiation and the View of the Other

67

Impediments to Negotiation

69

Automatic Thoughts in Negotiation

69

Problematic Styles of Persuasion

71

Personal Schemas and Negotiation

73

The Special Case: The Narcissist as Negotiator

74

Turning the Narcissist into a Negotiator

76

Special Traps for Narcissists

79

Conclusions

80

References

81

Chapter 4: Emotional Competence and Effective Negotiation: The Integration of Emotion Understanding, Regulation, and Communication

83

Theoretical Assumptions

85

Reciprocal Influence Between Emotions and Relationships

85

Emotion Generation and Ethno-Psychology

86

Moral Disposition or Identity

87

Negotiation Theory and Emotion Research

87

Emotional Intelligence and Negotiation

88

Distinguishing Emotional Competence from Emotional Intelligence

88

Skills of Emotional Competence as Applied to Negotiation

89

Awareness of One’s Own Emotions

89

Understanding of Others’ Emotional Experience and Capacity for Empathy/Sympathy

91

Skill in Using the Vocabulary of Emotion and Expression

93

Emotional-Expressive Behavior Management and Regulation of Emotion Regulation

94

Management of Emotional-Expressive Behavior

95

Emotion Regulation

96

Awareness of How Emotion Communication Differentiates Relationships and Capacity for Emotional Self-Efficacy

97

Relevance to Negotiation

98

Conclusions

100

References

100

Chapter 5: Tacit Knowledge Structures in the Negotiation Process

103

Cognitive Products, Processes and Structures

104

Memory Processes in Cognitive Functioning

107

Fast and Frugal Heuristics

109

Heuristics

109

Practical Implications for Negotiations

111

References

113

Chapter 6: Ways to Improve Political Decision-Making: Negotiating Errors to be Avoided

114

Origins of the Fantasy

114

My Fantasy

115

Preventative Interventions

116

Translating a “Fantasy” into a Practical Intervention

118

A Touch of Reality Testing

121

References

122

Chapter 7: Escalation of Images in International Conflicts

125

The Negotiation Process: Metaphors and Images

126

Images and Unachieved Negotiations

127

Escalation in Negotiation

129

Escalation of Images: First Level

130

A Further Stage in the Escalation of Images: Demonization

132

Demonizing Versus Negotiating

134

Distorted Images

135

Images and Reality

138

References

140

Chapter 8: Communication Preliminary to Negotiation in Intractable Conflict

142

Motivation to Escape the Conflict

143

Optimism About Finding a Mutually Acceptable Agreement

145

The Relationship Between Motivation and Optimism

145

Back-Channel Communication

147

Unofficial Communication: Track 2 and Track 1 ½ Diplomacy

149

Conclusions: Growing Optimism and Stages on the Way to Negotiation

151

References

153

Chapter 9: Negotiating a New Deal Between Science and Society: Reflections on the Importance of Cognition and Emotions in International Scientific Cooperation

155

Introduction

155

Back to Basics: What Type of Science and Scientific Cooperation is Needed for the Transitions Towards More Sustainable Societies?

158

Implication of Some Recent Research Results from Different Branches of Science for a More Effective Engagement of Science with Societal Negotiation and Mediation Processes

165

Under What Conditions Can International Scientific Cooperation Support Meeting the Challenges of the next Decades to Bring Human Societies in Line with Sustainability?

171

Concluding Remarks

176

References

177

Chapter 10: Representative Decision Making: Constituency Constraints on Collective Action

181

Overview

181

Background

182

Research Design

186

Data Collection and Analysis

187

Results

189

Discussion

192

Appendix

195

The Situation

195

References

196

Chapter 11: Ideal Negotiator: A Personal Formula for the New International System

198

Two Sides of Negotiation

199

Three Dimensions of Negotiation as the Beginning

201

Some New Elements of the Setting

205

The Structure of the International Negotiations (A System)

207

References

209

Chapter 12: How It Looks When Negotiations Fail: Why Do We Need Specific and Specialized Training for International Negotiators?

211

Consequences

212

Material Damages

212

Migrations

213

Civil Casualties

214

Subsequent Consequences

214

Conclusions

215

References

216

Chapter 13: Cognitive Therapy in National Conflict Resolution: An Opportunity. The Lebanese Experience

218

Review of the Basic Principles of CBT

219

How Do We Achieve This?

219

The Principles of Negotiation (Young and Beck 1980) Involve Principally

220

Types of Conflict Situations

220

The Lebanese Experience

221

Region A

221

Region B

221

Region C

222

How Could Negotiators Benefit from CBT to Be Better Prepared in Situations Such as A and B?

222

New Challenges for CBT

223

Causal Attribution of Rupture as per Analysisof the Interviews

225

Cognitive Factors

226

Group A

226

Group B

226

Group C

227

Group D

227

Identification of Some Cognitive Biases as per Analysis of the Interviews

228

Summary of Emotions

228

Examples of Cognitive Conceptualization

228

Organization

229

CTI as a Facilitator, Aiming at Reducing the Impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Differences

229

Conclusions

230

References

230

Chapter 14: Transformative Leadership for Peace Negotiation

232

Introduction

232

International Organizations as Medium to bring Nations and People closer together

235

Small and Flexible Teams of Negotiators WithinInternational Institutional Frameworks: The Case of the European Union

237

The European Union and US Negotiating Behaviors

239

Interpersonal Negotiations

241

Individual and Social Cognitive Mechanisms Influencing Decision-Making Processes

242

Aware Leadership for the Future

244

Negotiating Working Relationship

245

Breakdown Resolution and Alliance Building: Training Elements

247

A Cognitive Oriented Political Strategy

250

Conclusions

251

References

253

Chapter 15: Social Cognitive Psychotherapy: From Clinical Practice to Peace Perspectives

257

Introduction

257

From Clinical Practice to Peace Perspectives

259

Cognitive Approaches to Peace

261

Selective Moral Disengagement

262

The Psychological Effects of Power

263

Psychological Effects of Leadership

264

Countermeasures

265

Integrating Viewpoints

266

Psychological Strategies

267

A Model of Social Psychotherapy

268

Conclusions

269

References

271

Chapter 16: Conclusions

273

Index

275