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Biomarkers for Psychiatric Disorders

of: Chris Turck

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9780387792514 , 538 Pages

Format: PDF, Read online

Copy protection: DRM

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Read Online for: Windows PC,Mac OSX,Linux

Price: 178,49 EUR



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Biomarkers for Psychiatric Disorders


 

Preface

5

Contents

8

Blood and Brain Gene Expression in Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Search for Biomarkers

10

1.1 Introduction

11

1.2 Designing Gene Expression Investigations

12

1.3 Choosing a Platform

13

1.4 Postmortem Gene Expression in Major Psychiatric Disorders

14

1.5 Blood Gene Expression in Major Psychiatric Disorders

19

1.6 Methodological Considerations for Microarray Investigations in Psychiatry

22

1.7 Future Directions for Gene Expression Analysis in Psychiatry

24

1.8 Conclusion

25

Reference

26

Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

31

2.1 Introduction

32

2.2 Nonmolecular Markers in Schizophrenia

35

2.3 Electrophysiological Endophenotypes as Biomarkers

38

2.4 Brain Imaging

42

2.5 Blood-based and Molecular Biomarkers

45

2.6 Summary and Perspectives

52

References

53

Proteomic Strategies for Biomarker Discovery: From Differential Expression to Isoforms to Pathways

64

3.1 Introduction

64

3.2 Strategies

66

3.3 Trait Anxiety Mouse Model

69

3.4 Cerebrospinal Fluid

72

3.5 Autoantibodies

75

3.6 Validation

77

3.7 Conclusion

77

References

79

Schizophrenia Biomarkers: A Means to Advance Disease Understanding, Diagnosis and Treatment

82

4.1 Introduction

83

4.2 Methods for Biomarker Discovery in Schizophrenia

86

4.3 Reported Peripheral Alterations in Schizophrenia

95

4.4 Data Analysis

96

4.5 Summary and Perspectives

98

References

99

RNA Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

104

5.1 Introduction

105

References

128

Metabolomics: A Global Biochemical Approach to the Discovery of Biomarkers for Psychiatric Disorders

135

6.1 Introduction

136

6.2 Biomarker Discovery Research: An Overview

137

6.3 Evidence for Metabolic Changes in Psychiatric Disorders: Rationale for a Metabolomics Approach for Biomarker Discovery

140

6.4 Metabolomics: A Global Biochemical Approach for Biomarker Discovery

149

6.5 Conclusions

160

Disclosures

161

References

161

Animal Models for Schizophrenia: A Brief Overview

169

7.1 Introduction

170

7.2 Behavioral Analysis in Animal Models for Schizophrenia

170

7.3 Pharmacological Animal Models

177

7.4 Neurodevelopmental Animal Models

179

7.5 Transgenic Animal Models

180

7.6 Concluding Remarks

183

References

184

Synaptoproteomics of Existing and New Animal Models of Depression

191

8.1 Introduction

192

8.2 The Learned Helplessness Rat Model of Depression

193

8.3 The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) and the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) Rat Model of Depression

194

8.4 Gene–Environment Interaction: Developing a New Animal Model of Depression

195

8.5 Optimization of Synaptoproteomic Analysis

196

8.6 Experimental Design and Results in the LH-nLH Animal Model

201

8.7 Experimental Design and Results in FSL/FRL Animal Model

202

8.8 In silico Analysis of Protein Pathways

204

8.9 Summary and Perspectives

205

References

206

Animal Models for Anxiety Disorders

209

9.1 Introduction

209

9.2 Overview of Human Anxiety Disorders

210

9.3 Animal Models of Anxiety Disorders

210

9.4 Neural Circuitry Underlying Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Animal Models

216

9.5 Molecular Genetic Understanding of Anxiety in Animal Models

217

9.6 The Role of Environment

218

9.7 Summary and Perspectives

218

References

219

Animal Models of Affective Behaviors and Drug Addiction

223

10.1 Introduction

224

10.2 Behavioral Despair Tests

227

10.3 Bulbectomy

229

10.4 Depression and Drug Addiction

230

10.5 Drug Self-Administration/Drug Preference

230

10.6 Drug Tolerance and Sensitization

233

10.7 Drug Dependence and Withdrawal

234

10.8 Relapse

235

10.9 Analytical Tools

235

10.10 Summary and Perspective

236

References

236

Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

241

11.1 Introduction

242

11.2 Schizophrenia: A Genetically Complex Brain Disorder

243

11.3 Neurostructural Biomarkers

247

11.4 Functional Neuroimaging Markers

249

11.5 Intermediate Phenotypes: Concept and Applications

255

11.6 Imaging of Antipsychotic Drug Effects

263

11.7 Summary and Perspectives

265

References

266

Sleep EEG Provides Biomarkers in Depression

278

12.1 Introduction

279

12.2 Sleep EEG in Patients with Depression

280

12.3 Sleep EEG in Animal Models of Depression and Anxiety

282

12.4 Sleep EEG in High Risk Probands for Affective Disorders

283

12.5 Effects of Antidepressants on Sleep EEG

284

12.6 State and Vulnerability Markers During Drug Therapy

290

12.7 The Role of the HPA System in sleep EEG-Changes in Depression

294

12.8 Perspectives

296

References

297

Strategies to Identify Biomarkers for Depression

304

13.1 Introduction

305

13.2 Identification of Biomarkers Based on Disease Mechanism

306

13.3 Identification of Biomarkers Based on Antidepressants’ Mechanism of Action

311

13.4 Identification of Biomarkers by Unbiased Approaches

313

13.5 Summary and Perspectives

315

References

316

Pharmacogenetics of Antidepressant Response

320

14.1 Introduction

321

14.2 Pharmacokinetics

322

14.3 Pharmacodynamics

325

14.4 Conclusions and Perspectives

338

References

344

Perspectives for an Integrated Biomarker Approach to Drug Discovery and Development

359

15.1 Introduction

360

15.2 Clinical Drug Development

362

15.3 Animal Models

380

15.4 Cellular Models

388

15.5 Summary and Perspectives

392

References

394

Hunting for Peripheral Biomarkers to Support Drug Development in Psychiatry

408

16.1 Introduction

409

16.2 The Rationale for the Search of Peripheral Biomarkers in Psychiatry

410

16.3 Biomarker Findings in Psychiatry by Hypothesis-Based Approaches

412

16.4 Novel Large-Scale Approaches to Biomarkers in Psychiatry

416

16.5 Integration with Pharmacogenetic and Imaging Markers

420

16.6 Summary and Perspectives

422

References

423

Biomarkers for the Development of Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Drugs

430

17.1 Introduction

431

17.2 Clinical Biomarkers in Depression and Anxiety

432

17.3 Biomarkers in Drug Discovery and Development

439

17.4 Summary and Perspectives

440

References

441

DNA Biomarkers for Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

447

18.1 Introduction

449

18.2 Methods for Discovery of Disease Associated DNA Biomarkers

450

18.3 Some Known Associations Between Psychiatric Disease and DNA Sequences

453

18.4 Diagnostic Tests Using DNA Biomarkers

459

18.5 Pharmacogenomic Studies

463

18.6 Conclusion

467

References

467

Biological Modeling in the Discovery and Validation of Cognitive Dysfunctions Biomarkers

474

19.1 Introduction

476

19.2 The Need for Biological Models and the Role of Systems Biology

478

19.3 The Concept of Endophenotypes and Functional Genetic Reality

482

19.4 The Nature of Cognitive Processes

485

19.5 Neurotransmitter Networks and Glial Populations

492

19.6 Systems Biology Applied to Mental Disorders

503

19.7 Conclusion

508

References

509

Index

524