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Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology

of: Cecil Reynolds, Elaine Fletcher-Janzen

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9780387788678 , 814 Pages

3. Edition

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Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology


 

Contributors

5

Preface to the Third Edition

9

Contents

11

Part 1: Foundations and Current Issues

14

Development of Neuropsychology as a Professional Psychological Specialty: History, Training, and Credentialing

15

Background

15

Assessment Approaches

17

Professional Context of Child Neuropsychology

18

Levels of Inference

18

Credentialing of Psychologists

19

Definition of a Clinical Neuropsychologist

20

General Issues in Child Clinical Training

22

Focus on Training in Clinical Child Neuropsychology

23

Professional Context of Clinical Child Neuropsychology

25

Professional Relationships

25

Appendix

25

Guidelines for Doctoral Training Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology

26

Guidelines for Neuropsychology Internships in Clinical Neuropsychology

26

Experiences to Be Provided

27

Didactic Training

27

Experiential Training

27

Exit Criteria

27

Guidelines for Postdoctoral Training in Clinical Neuropsychology

27

Entry Criteria

28

General Considerations

28

Specific Considerations

28

Didactic Training

28

Experiential Training

28

Exit Criteria

29

Additional Sources

29

References

29

Development of the Child’s Brain and Behavior

31

Introduction

31

Anatomical Development of the Child’s Brain

33

Neural Generation

33

Cell Migration

36

Axonal Development

36

Dendritic Development

36

Synaptic Development

37

Glial Development

38

Myelin Development

38

Neurochemical Development

39

Postnatal Brain Development

39

Cell Death

40

Imaging Studies of Brain Development

40

Cortical Function at Birth

41

Abnormal Development of the Child’s Brain

41

Abnormal Neural Structure

41

Injury and Brain Development

42

Behavioral Correlates of Brain Development

43

Motor Systems

43

Language Development

43

Cerebral Asymmetry

46

Development of Problem-Solving Ability

46

Development of Neuropsychological Test Performance

48

Frontal Lobe Tests

48

Abnormal Brain Development and Behavior

49

Early Brain Injury and Behavior

50

Conclusion

53

References

53

Development of Cerebral Lateralization in Children

59

Lateral Asymmetry as a Pervasive Design Characteristic in Nature and the World

59

The Normative Adult Endpoint of Hemisphere Specialization

59

Development of Hemisphere Specialization: Competing Hypotheses

60

The Origin of Bisymmetry

61

Asymmetry (Somatic)

61

Asymmetry (Neural)

61

Morphological Asymmetries in the Human

62

Peripheral Laterality

64

Infant Central Laterality

65

Emergence of Hand Preference in Children

65

Development of Central Laterality in Childhood

66

Lateralization Probed by Lateral Cerebral Damage

69

Lateralization in Developmental Deficit

70

Introduction

70

Hand Preference in Developmental Disabilities

70

Central Laterality in Developmental Deficits

71

References

73

Development of Higher Brain Functions: Birth Through Adolescence

79

Introduction

79

Development of the Human CNS

80

Morphology

80

Neuroembryonic Structure Formation

81

Basal Ganglia

82

Ventricle Formation and CSF

83

Spinal Cord Formation, Alar and Basal Plates

83

Hippocampi

84

Cellular Differentiation of the Nervous System

85

Sex Differences in Brain Structure

90

Fetal Sex Steroid Hormones and Neural Development

90

Summary

90

Factors Affecting Normal Brain Development and Higher Cortical Functions

91

General Factors Involved in Human Brain Growth

92

Mass Growth of the Brain

92

White Matter Development

93

Cortical Development and Timing: A Link to IQ

93

Intelligence, IQ, Spearman’s ‘‘g’’ and Cortical Development

94

Frontal Lobes and Executive Processes

95

Sensorimotor Functions and the Appearance of Neurological Reflexes

95

Prematurity and Low Birth Weight

96

Frontal Lobe Maturation

96

Nutrition and Malnutrition

97

Cerebral Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow

97

EEG Development

99

Speech and Oral Communication Development

100

Acculturation Processes

102

Postnatal Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Development

102

Memory

103

Symbolization and Early Cognitive Development

104

Mirror Neurons (MN)

105

Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WS)

105

Brain Maturation in Early and Late Cognitive Development

107

Adolescents: Brain and Behavior Development

108

Autistic Spectrum and Asperger Syndrome

109

Brain Changes and Reading

110

Cerebral Asymmetry and Cerebral Lateralization

110

New Brain Imaging Techniques for Studying Normal Brain Development and its Functions

112

Neuroimaging and Other Research Methods

112

MRI

112

Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Imaging of the Normal, Healthy Brains

113

EPI

114

PETT

114

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

115

MSI

116

MegEEG

116

Research Designs and Methodologies

116

Conclusion

117

References

118

Neuropsychology of Child Psychopathology

129

Introduction

129

Foundations: Review of Early Studies

130

Psychiatric Sequelae of Childhood Brain Dysfunction

130

Prevalence of Brain Dysfunction Among Children with Psychiatric Disorders

133

Conceptual Issues

135

Findings in Selected Categories of Child Psychopathology

137

Autistic Disorder

137

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

140

Conduct Disorders

142

Affective Disorders

144

Anxiety Disorders

146

Childhood Schizophrenia

147

Implications for Research and Practice

148

References

150

Neurodevelopmental Malformations: Etiology and Clinical Manifestations

159

Abnormalities in the Bulk Growth of the Brain

159

Micrencephaly

160

Megalencephaly

160

Dysplasias of the Cerebral Hemispheres

161

Holoprosencephaly

161

Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

164

Malformations of the Cerebral Cortex

165

Agyria (Lissencephaly) and Pachygyria

165

Focal Dysplasia/Heterotopia

167

Polymicrogyria

167

Hydrocephalus and Associated Malformations

168

Hydrocephalus

168

Dandy-Walker Malformation

169

Arnold-Chiari Malformation

170

Stenosis of the Aqueduct of Sylvius

171

Abnormalities of the Neural Tube and Fusion Deficits

171

Spina Bifida

171

Cranium Bifidum and Encephalocele

172

Anencephaly

173

Hydranencephaly

174

Porencephaly

174

Conclusions

175

References

176

Pediatric Brain Injury: Mechanisms and Amelioration

181

Epidemiological Mechanisms

181

Physiological Mechanisms

183

Psychological Mechanisms

186

Neuropsychological/Neurodevelopmental Assessment

188

School-Related Issues

190

Physical Sequelae

192

References

195

Neuropsychological Basis of Learning Disabilities

199

The Concept of Learning Disabilities

199

Prevalence of Learning Disabilities

201

Etiology and Genetics of Learning Disabilities

201

Subtyping Learning Disabilities

205

A Neuropsychological Model to Assess Learning Disability

207

Evaluating Learning Disability in the Context of a Comprehensive Neuropsychological Evaluation

209

Interventions for Learning Disabilities

209

Summary

210

References

211

Measurement and Statistical Problems in Neuropsychological Assessment of Children

215

Normative Data and Standardization Samples

217

Gutkin and Reynolds’s (1980) Norming of the Selz and Reitan Index of Neurological Dysfunction

219

Reliability of Neuropsychological Measures

223

Variance Definitions of Reliability and Validity

223

Calculating and Reporting Reliability

224

Scaling Problems in Neuropsychological Testing

225

RL and RA

226

RQ

228

Ratios and Quotients

229

Standard or Scaled Scores

229

Differential Diagnosis: Determining Membership in Clinical Populations

231

Some Statistical Considerations

231

The Willson and Reynolds Examples of Classification Problems

233

Profile Reliability

236

Sensitivity, Specificity, Diagnostic Accuracy, and Positive/Negative Predictive Value

237

Summary

238

References

239

Models of Inference in Evaluating Brain-Behavior Relationships in Children

243

Introduction

243

Basic Issues of Clinical Inference

243

Clinical-Inferential Methods

243

Levels of Inference

244

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Formation: The Logic of Strong Inference

245

Clinical Judgment in Neuropsychology

247

Summary of Basic Issues

248

Models of Inference in Child Neuropsychology

248

The Inferential Context of Child Neuropsychology

248

Assessment Methods in Child Neuropsychology

249

Quantitative Inferences in Child Neuropsychology

250

Qualitative Inferences in Child Neuropsychology

250

Inferential Fallacies in Child Neuropsychology

251

Summary

253

References

253

Part 2: Neuropsychological Diagnosis

256

Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Batteries for Children

257

Validation Studies

257

Subtests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children Ages 9-14

259

Category Test

259

Tactual Performance Test

259

Finger Tapping Test

259

Speech Sounds Perception Test

260

Seashore Rhythm Test

260

Trails A and B

260

Strength of Grip Test

260

Sensory-Perceptual Exam

260

Finger Localization Test

261

Fingertip Number Writing Test

261

Tactile Form Recognition Test

261

Aphasia Screening Test

261

Ordering Information

262

Subtests from the Reitan-Indiana Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children 5-8

262

Category Test

262

Tactual Performance Test

262

Finger Tapping Test

262

Speech Sounds Perception Test, Seashore Rhythm Test, Trails A and B

262

Marching Test

262

Strength of Grip

262

Sensory-Perceptual Exam (SPE)

262

Aphasia Screening Test

263

Color Form Test

263

Progressive Figures Test

263

Matching Pictures Test

263

Target Test

263

Matching Figures and Matching V’s Test

263

Drawing of Star and Concentric Squares

264

Ordering Information

264

Normative Analysis of Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test for Children

264

Interpretation of Children’s Performance on Neuropsychological Batteries

267

Level of Performance

268

Pathognomonic Signs

268

Patterns of Performance

268

Comparison of Right and Left Body Sides

269

Multiple Inferential Approach

269

Rules Approach

269

Neuropsychological Deficit Scale

269

Biobehavioral Approach

269

Pragmatic Approach

270

Applications

271

Summary

273

References

274

The Nebraska Neuropsychological Children’s Battery

277

Development of the Battery

277

Description of the Battery

278

Interpretation

279

Levels of Interpretation

279

Identifying Brain Damage

280

Use of the Critical Level

280

Interpreting Scale Patterns

281

Factors Affecting Scale Interpretation

281

Developmental Issues in Interpretation

282

Clinical Scales

282

Qualitative Analysis

287

Personality

287

Prior History

288

Updated Approach to Qualitative Scoring

288

Interpretation

289

Conclusions

290

References

290

Applications of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition in Neuropsychological AssessmentThe second author, R. W. Kamphaus, wishes to disclose a potential conflict of interest. He studied with Dr. Alan Kaufman when a graduate student at the University of Georgia and, later, he served as project director for the original K-ABC for the test’s publisher.

291

Overview

291

History

291

Theoretical Framework

292

Research with Pediatric Samples

293

Test Overview

294

Psychometric Properties

295

Standardization

296

Reliability

296

Validity

297

Correlations with Other Measures of Intelligence

298

Demographic Group Differences

299

Performance of Clinical Groups

299

Administration

301

Interpretation

302

Conclusions

304

Strengths

304

Weaknesses

305

References

305

Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment with the Test of Memory and Learning, Second Edition

307

Basic Neurobiology of Memory

309

TOMAL-2

310

TOMAL-2 Subtests

310

Standardization

312

Reliability

312

Validity

312

Factor Structure of the TOMAL-2

312

Cross-Ethnic Stability of Factor Indexes

316

Forward Versus Backward Recall

318

Delayed Recall

320

Ethnic Differences in Mean Levels of Performance

320

Interpretive Strategies

320

Brief Case Examples

321

Conclusion

325

References

327

Utilizing a Neuropsychological Paradigm for Understanding Common Educational and Psychological Tests

330

Why Consider a Neuropsychological Perspective?

331

Approaches to Neuropsychological Assessment

332

Quantitative Standardized Approaches

332

Qualitative Clinical Approaches

333

An Integrative Flexible Battery Model

334

Basic Assumptions

334

The Flexible Battery Approach

334

Areas the Evaluation Should Encompass

336

The Evaluation-Intervention Link

337

Interview and Generation of Assessment Plan

338

Developmental History

338

Perceptual/Sensory and Motor Functions

338

Perceptual/Sensory Functions

338

Motor Functions

339

Cognitive/Intellectual Functioning

340

Academic Achievement

346

Communication/Language Skills

348

Attention/Learning/Processing

349

Personality Variables

350

Conclusions

353

References

353

Assessment of Behavior and Personality in the Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Children

358

Neuropsychology of Emotions

359

Childhood Psychopathology from a Neuropsychological-Neuropsychiatric View

360

The Role and Development of Frontal Lobes in Children

361

Evidence from Childhood Psychopathology

362

Evidence from TBI

362

The Role of the Right and Left Hemispheres

364

Externalizing Disorders of Childhood

365

ADHD

365

Neuropsychology of ADHD

368

Conduct Disorder

370

Internalizing Disorders of Childhood

372

Childhood Depression

373

Childhood Anxiety

374

Conclusions

375

Specific Assessment Methods

375

Parent Rating Scales

375

Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition Parent Rating Scales (BASC-2-PRS) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004)

376

Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) (Conners, 1997)

376

Teacher Ratings

378

Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition Teacher Rating Scales (BASC-2-TRS) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004)

378

Conners’ Teacher Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R) (Conners, 1997)

379

Teacher’s Report Form (TRF; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)

379

Student Behavior Survey (SBS)(Lachar, Wingenfeld, Kline, & Gruber, 2000)

380

Devereux Behavior Rating Scale-School Form (DBRS-SF) (Naglieri et al., 1993)

380

Conclusions Regarding Parent and Teacher Rating Scales

380

Integrating Psychological-Behavioral Assessment Findings into Neuropsychological Evaluation Results

381

Identify Neuropsychological Assets and Deficits

381

Identify Comorbid Disorders

382

Identify the Developmental Course of the Disorder

382

Identify Child Competencies

383

Identify Ecological Factors

383

References

383

Psychophysiological Evaluation of Neuropsychological Disorders in Children

391

Introduction

391

Developmental Learning Disorders

392

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

399

Childhood Autism

400

Conclusion

402

References

402

The Assessment of the Hispanic Child

408

The Assessment of the Hispanic Child

408

A Brief Look at Current and Future Statistics on Hispanics

409

Race, Ethnicity, Culture, and the Assessment of the Hispanic Child

411

Ethical Issues and the Assessment of the Hispanic Child

412

Neuropsychological Assessment of the Hispanic Child: Special Topics

413

Education

413

Poverty/SES

415

Literacy

415

Occupational Status

415

Housing

416

Health

416

Perceptions and Bias

417

Acculturation

418

Language

419

Genetics: A Bridge Eliminating the Chasm Between Culture and Brain

420

The Assessment of Hispanic Children: Pragmatic Assessment Issues

421

Cultural Competency

423

Multicultural Diagnostic Considerations During Neuropsychological Assessment

424

Conclusions

425

References

427

Part 3: Techniques of Intervention

432

Neurocognitive Interventions for Childhood and Adolescent Disorders: A Transactional ModelPortions of this chapter are adapted from Teeter, P.A., & Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2007). Child Clinical Neuropsychology: Assessment and Interventions for Neurodevelopmental Disorders of Childhood, New York. Copyright Springer. Adapted with permission.

433

Theoretical Orientations for the Study of Childhood Disorders

434

Neuropsychological Component

434

Behavioral Component

435

Psychosocial and Cognitive Components

436

A Transactional Neuropsychological Paradigm for the Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Disorders

437

Models Linking Assessment to Interventions

438

Multistage Neuropsychological Model

438

Developmental Neuropsychological Remediation/Rehabilitation Model

440

The Reitan Evaluation of Hemispheric Abilities and Brain Improvement Training (REHABIT)

441

Phenomenological Model for Educational Interventions

441

Neuropsychological Orientations for Remediation

442

Attacking Neurocognitive Deficits

442

Teaching to Neurocognitive Strengths

442

Combined Treatment Programs

443

Disorders of Childhood: Implications for Remediation

443

Reading Disabilities: Phonological Core Deficits

443

Intervention Strategies

445

Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

445

Intervention Strategies

445

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

447

Intervention Strategies

448

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

448

Intervention Strategies

448

Seizure Disorders

448

Intervention Strategies

448

Traumatic Brain Injury

449

Intervention Strategies

449

Brain Tumors

449

Intervention Strategies

449

Interventions for Associated Cognitive-Academic, Psychosocial, Executive Function, and Attentional Problems

450

Strategies for Cognitive and Academic Difficulties

450

Strategies for Reading Disorders

450

Phonological Awareness Training

450

Comprehension Strategies

450

Computer and Speech Feedback

451

Whole Language Programs

452

Strategies for Written Language Disorders

452

Strategies for Math Disorders

452

Strategies for Deficits in Executive Functions: Planning and Organizational Skills

452

Strategies for Social Skills Deficits

453

Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies

454

Self-Management/Self-Control Techniques

454

Home-Based Contingencies

454

Peer Tutoring

454

Psychopharmacological Interventions

455

Specific Classes of Medication

455

Monitoring Medication

455

Pharmacological/Behavioral Interventions

458

Home-School-Physician Partnerships

459

Summary and Conclusions

459

References

459

Brain Injury Rehabilitation of Children and Youth: Neurodevelopmental Perspectives

465

Introduction

465

Historical Development of Clinical Neuropsychology and Brain Injury

467

Neuropsychology and Rehabilitation

469

Biomedical Versus Service Neuropsychological Delivery Paradigms

469

Models of Program Service Delivery

470

Psychosocial Aspects of Holistic Programs

474

Pediatric Versus Adult Programming for Individuals with Brain Injury

475

Age of Injury

475

Assessment

477

Developmental Stage

480

Stage of Recovery

480

Modalities of Treatment

482

Family Involvement

483

Reentry Issues

484

Program Evaluation

485

Outcome Measurement

487

The Pediatric Rehabilitation Milieu

488

Interdisciplinary Versus Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Treatment Teams

489

The Neurodevelopmental Model of Pediatric Brain Injury Rehabilitation

490

Stage 1: Engagement

492

Stage 2: Awareness

494

Stage 3: Mastery

496

Stage 4: Control

496

Stage 5: Acceptance

497

Stage 6: Identity

498

Family-Centered Treatment in the Community

498

Summary and Conclusions

500

References

501

The Neuropsychology of Pediatric Epilepsy and Antiepileptic Drugs

510

Epilepsy and Cognitive Processes

512

Epilepsy and General Intelligence

512

Neuropsychological Model of Brain Functioning

512

Effects of Epilepsy on Specific Cognitive Processes

514

Sensory Input

514

Attention and Concentration

515

Learning and Memory

515

Language Skills

516

Perceptual-Motor Skills

517

Executive Functions

517

Motor Output

518

Neural Factors Underlying Cognitive Deficits

518

Etiology of the Seizure Disorder

518

Seizure Type and Frequency

519

Age at Onset and Duration of Disorder

520

Intellectual and Cognitive Effects of AEDs

521

Phenobarbital

522

Primidone

522

Phenytoin

523

Ethosuximide

523

Valproic Acid (Sodium Valproate)

523

Carbamazepine

523

Felbamate

524

Gabapentin

524

Lamotrigine

525

Vigabatrin

525

Nonmedication Alternative Treatments

526

Surgical Treatment

526

Behavioral Treatment

527

Dietary Treatment

527

References

528

Neuropsychological Effects of Stimulant Medication on Children’s Learning and Behavior

534

Historical Overview and Evolving Research

534

Prevalence

535

Pharmacology

535

Action Mechanism

535

Types of Stimulants

536

Methylphenidate (MPH)

536

Dextroamphetamine

538

Amphetamine (d- and 1-Amphetamine Racemic Mixture)

538

Pemoline

538

Other Stimulant Agents

538

Comparative Clinical Trials

538

Administration and Dose Response

539

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

541

Learning Disabilities

548

Conduct Disorders

549

Mental Retardation

550

Acquired Neurological Conditions

552

Tourette’s Syndrome

554

Depression in Medically Ill Groups

556

Developmental Issues

556

Preschoolers

556

Adolescents

557

Adults

558

Issues of Assessment

558

Physiological Correlates

558

Learning

561

Behavioral Correlates

561

Psychological Testing

562

Limitations of Stimulants

563

Iatrogenic and Emanative Effects

563

Psychosocial Attitudes and Beliefs About Medication

565

Long-Term Outcome of Children Treated with Stimulants

566

Growth Suppression

567

Cardiac System

567

Addiction

568

Multimodal Therapies

568

Training Issues

570

Concluding Comments

570

Note

571

References

571

Nonstimulant Psychotropic Medication: Desired and Adverse Cognitive Events

586

Adverse Events

586

Psychopharmacology with Children

588

Overview of Nonstimulant Psychotropic Drugs

588

Antipsychotic Medications

589

Antidepressants

593

Antimania Drugs

595

Antianxiety Drugs

596

Antiseizure Drugs

597

Antiparkinsonian Agents

597

Summary

597

References

597

Part 4: Special Topics in Clinical Child Neuropsychology

602

Child Clinical Neuropsychology of Drug AbuseSections of this chapter have been adapted and updated from, ‘‘Horton, A. M., Jr. (1996) Neuropsychology of drug abuse. In R. J. Sbordone and C. J. Long (Eds.) Ecological validity of neuropsychological testing (pp. 357-368) Delray Beach, Fla.: GR Press/St. Lucie Press.’’

603

Introduction

603

Overview

605

Brain Structures and Processes Underlying Addictive Behaviors

605

Psychoactive Substance Abuse Research Issues

611

Marijuana/Cannabis

613

Hallucinogens/LSD

614

Ecstasy

614

Opiates

614

Sedatives

615

Phencyclidine (PCP)

615

Cocaine

615

Stimulants

615

Inhalants/Solvents

616

Polydrug Abuse

616

Summary

616

References

617

Neuropsychological Aspects of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

620

Toward a Working Definition of ADHD

621

The Genetics and Etiology of ADHD

623

Developmental Course and Comorbidity

625

Neuropsychological Impairments in ADHD

627

Evaluation

628

Treatment

629

Summary

630

References

630

Neurobehavioral and Neurodevelopmental Sequelae Associated with Pediatric HIV Infection

637

Basic Concepts, Terminology, and Diagnostic Nomenclature

638

American and Global Pediatric HIV Epidemiology

640

Basic Virology and Immunology of HIV Infection in Children

641

Virology

642

Immunology

642

Neurological, Neuroimaging, and Neuropathological Findings in Pediatric HIV-1

643

Neurological Findings

643

Findings from Neuroimaging Studies

645

Neuropathological Features

646

Electrophysiological Findings

648

Findings from Other CNS Biological Correlates

648

Neurodevelopmental and Neurobehavioral Sequelae Associated Pediatric HIV-1 Infection

648

Emerging Neurodevelopment and Intellectual Functioning

649

Attention and Concentration

654

Memory

655

Expressive Language Functions and Auditory Processing

655

Motor Functioning and Processing Speed

656

Academic Achievement

657

Adaptive and Neurobehavioral Considerations

657

Neurodevelopment and Pharmacological Treatments

659

Diagnostic, Surveillance, and Rehabilitative Issues

661

Summary and Putative Directions for Future Research

662

References

664

Neuropsychological Sequelae of Chronic Medical Disorders in Children and Youth

672

Introduction

672

The Brain and CNS

673

Infections of the CNS

673

Periventricular Brain Injury (PVBI)

675

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

676

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

677

Brain Tumors

677

Neuromuscular Diseases

678

Other CNS Disorders

679

Leukodystrophy

680

Blood and Circulatory System

680

Anemia

680

Polycythemia Vera

681

Excessive Increases or Decreases in Platelets

681

Leukemia

682

Endocrine System

683

Diabetes Mellitus

683

Kidney Disease

689

Cardiovascular System

690

CNS Effects

690

Cardiac Arrest

692

Congenital Heart Disease Surgery

692

Lymphatic and Connective Tissue Systems

692

Spleen

692

Lymph Vessels

692

Disorders of the Connective Tissue System

692

CNS Effects

693

CNS Effects of Liver Dysfunction

693

Respiratory System

694

Bronchial Asthma

694

Cystic Fibrosis

695

Sleep Apnea (Snoring)

696

Central Nervous System Infection

696

Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

697

References

697

Coping and Adjustment of Children with Neurological Disorder

704

Introduction

704

General Systems and Developmental Models

705

Coping and Adjustment

706

Cautions

706

Societal Influence on Coping and Adjustment

707

Making Meaning of Neurological Disorder

708

Words, Words, Words-Hamlet, Act II, Scene ii

708

Facts Are the Enemy of Truth-Man of La Mancha

711

Defense or Coping?

711

Perception of Competence

712

Attributions

714

Issues in Psychotherapy

715

Psychosocial Adjustment

716

Psychiatric Symptomatology

717

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem

718

Socialization

718

Independence and Autonomy

719

Impact on the Family

720

Stages of Family Growth

720

Stages of Parental Adjustment

721

Parental Differences in Coping Style

722

Dyadic Relationships

723

Siblings

723

Discussion

724

References

724

Child Forensic Neuropsychology: A Scientific Approach

730

Child Forensic Neuropsychology: A Scientific Approach

730

The Scientist-Practitioner: Familiarity with the Scientific Research

734

Consideration of the Other Sides of the Coin

737

Malnutrition

739

Disease

739

Toxic Agents

739

Perinatal Injury

739

Intellectual-Social Stimulation

740

Within a Reasonable Degree of Neuropsychological Certainty

740

Causation

740

Prognosis

741

Concluding Remarks

741

References

742

Neuropsychology and Coma Management

745

Levels of Consciousness

745

Coma Assessment Measures

747

Coma/Near Coma Scale

748

Clinical Use of Medication in Disorders of Consciousness

750

Treatment Effects

752

Neuroimaging and Electrophysiological Techniques

753

Computed Tomography (CT)

753

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional MRI (fMRI)

753

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Functional PET (fPET)

753

Electroencephalography (EEG)

754

Evoked Potentials

754

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)

754

Prognosis

755

Outcome Measures

757

Parent Education

758

Conclusion

759

Ethical Considerations

759

References

759

Neuropsychological Aspects of Pervasive Developmental and Autism Spectrum Disorders

764

Diagnostic Criteria

764

Differential Diagnosis

765

Asperger’s Disorder

765

Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified

765

Rett Syndrome

766

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

766

Neuropsychological Theories of Autism

766

The Limbic System Hypothesis

766

The Weak Central Coherence Hypothesis

767

Executive Function Hypothesis

767

Theory of Mind Hypothesis

768

Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder

768

Language Domain

768

Intellectual Domain

769

Memory Domain

771

Attention Domain

772

Executive Function Domain

773

The Role of Lateralization in Autism

774

Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

774

Asperger’s Disorder

774

Rett Syndrome

775

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

775

Summary and Conclusion

776

References

776

Using the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) Theory Within a Neuropsychological Context

781

Introduction

781

From Neuropsychology Theory to Assessment

781

Three Functional Units Described

782

Functional Units: Interactions and Influences

783

From the Three Functional Units to the PASS Theory

784

Operationalization and Application of the Theory

785

Validity

786

Relationship to Achievement

786

Relationship to Behavior

787

Fairness

787

Diagnostic Utility of PASS

788

Diagnostic Utility in Specific Populations

788

Reading Disability

789

Treatment Validity

790

PREP

790

Planning Strategy Instruction

791

Sample Cases

792

Case I: Ryan’s Problem with Planning

792

Case II: Jessica’s Problems with Simultaneous Processing

794

Conclusions

796

References

796

Index

799