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Development of the Nervous System

Development of the Nervous System

of: Dan H. Sanes, Thomas A. Reh, William A. Harris

Elsevier Trade Monographs, 2011

ISBN: 9780080923208 , 360 Pages

3. Edition

Format: PDF, ePUB, Read online

Copy protection: DRM

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Development of the Nervous System


 

Front Cover

1

Development of the Nervous System

4

Copyright

5

To our families

6

Contents

8

Preface to the Third Edition

12

Preface to the Second Edition

14

Preface to the First Edition

16

Chapter 1: Neural induction

18

Development and Evolution of Neurons

18

Early Embryology of Metazoans

18

Derivation of Neural Tissue

19

Interactions with Neighboring Tissues in Making Neural Tissue

24

The Molecular Nature of the Neural Inducer

27

Conservation of Neural Induction

30

Interactions among the ectodermal cells in controlling neuroblast segregation

34

Summary

38

References

38

Chapter 2: Polarity and segmentation

40

Regional identity of the nervous system

40

The anterior–posterior axis and hox genes

41

Hox gene function in the vertebrate nervous system

43

Signaling molecules that pattern the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates: heads or tails

46

Organizing centers in the developing brain

50

Forebrain development, prosomeres, and pax genes

51

Dorsal–ventral polarity in the neural tube

55

Dorsal neural tube and neural crest

57

Patterning the cerebral cortex

61

Summary

64

References

64

Chapter 3: Genesis and migration

66

What Determines the Number of Cells Produced by the Progenitors?

69

The Generation of Neurons and Glia

72

Cerebral Cortex Histogenesis

75

Cerebellar Cortex Histogenesis

80

Molecular Mechanisms of Neuronal Migration

82

Postembryonic and Adult Neurogenesis

84

Summary

90

References

90

Chapter 4: Determination and differentiation

94

Transcriptional Hierarchies in Invariant Lineages: C. Elegans Neurons

96

Spatial and Temporal Coordinates of Determination: Drosophila CNS Neuroblasts

99

Asymmetric Cell Divisions and Asymmetric Fate

100

Generating Complexity Through Cellular Interactions: the Drosophila Retina

102

Specification and Differentiation Through Cellular Interactions and Interactions With the Local Environment: the Vertebrate Neural Crest

104

Competence and Histogenesis: the Mammalian Cortex

107

The Interplay of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Influences in Histogenesis: the Vertebrate Retina

109

Interpreting Gradients and the Spatial Organization of cell Types: Spinal Motor Neurons

115

Summary

119

References

120

Chapter 5: Axon growth and guidance

122

The Growth Cone

123

The Dynamic Cytoskeleton

127

Dendrite Formation

132

What do Growth Cones Grow on?

134

What Provides Directional Information to Growth Cones?

137

Cell Adhesion and Labeled Pathways

138

Repulsive Guidance

141

Chemotaxis, Gradients, and Local Information

143

Signal Transduction

146

The midline: to Cross or Not to Cross?

147

Attraction and Repulsion: Desensitization and Adaptation

148

The Optic Pathway: Getting There From Here

151

Summary

155

References

155

Chapter 6: Target selection

160

Defasciculation

160

Target Recognition and Target Entry

161

Slowing Down and Branching in the Target Region

163

Border Patrol: the Prevention of Inappropriate Targeting

164

Topographic Mapping

166

Chemospecificity and Ephrins

167

The Third Dimension, Lamina-Specific Termination

170

Cellular and Synaptic Targeting

174

Sniffing out Targets

175

Shifting and Fine Tuning of Connections

179

Summary

183

References

183

Chapter 7: Naturally-occurring neuron death

188

What Does Neuron Death Look Like?

188

Early Elimination of Progenitor Cells

190

How Many Differentiated Neurons Die?

190

Survival Depends on the Synaptic Target

191

NGF: a Target-Derived Survival Factor

193

The Neurotrophin Family

195

The Trk Family of Neurotrophin Receptors

196

How Does the Neurotrophin Signal Reach the Soma?

198

The p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Can Initiate Cell Death

199

Cytokines Act as Neuron Survival Factors

201

Hormonal Control of Neuron Survival

203

Cell Death Requires Protein Synthesis

205

Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Mediate Survival

205

Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Mediate Death

208

Caspases: Agents of Death

209

Bcl-2 Proteins: Regulators of Programmed Cell Death

211

Removal of Dying Neurons

213

Synaptic Transmission at the Target

214

Afferent Regulation of Neuron Survival

215

Intracellular Calcium Mediates Both Survival and Death

216

Summary

218

References

218

Chapter 8: Synapse formation and function

226

What do Newly Formed Synapses Look Like?

231

Where Do Synapses Form on the Postsynaptic Cell?

232

How Rapidly Are Synapses Added to the Nervous System?

234

The First Signs of Synapse Function

234

The Decision to form a Synapse

237

The Sticky Synapse

238

Converting Growth Cones to Presynaptic Terminals

240

Receptor Clustering and Postsynaptic Differentiation at the NMJ

242

Agrin is a Transynaptic Clustering Signal at the NMJ

243

Receptor Clustering Signals in the CNS

245

Scaffold Proteins and Receptor Aggregation in the CNS

247

Innervation Increases Receptor Expression and Insertion

249

Synaptic Activity Regulates Receptor Density

251

Maturation of Transmission and Receptor Isoform Transitions

253

Maturation of Transmitter Reuptake

255

Short-term Plasticity

256

Appearance of Synaptic Inhibition

257

Is Inhibition Really Inhibitory During Development?

257

Summary

258

References

259

Chapter 9: Refinement of synaptic connections

266

The early Pattern of Connections

266

Functional Synapses are Eliminated

267

Many Axonal Arborizations are Eliminated or Refined

269

The Sensory Environment Influences Synaptic Connections

272

Activity Influences Synapse Elimination at the NMJ

277

Synapse Refinement is Reflected in Sensory Coding Properties

278

Activity contributes to Topography and the Alignment of Maps

280

Spontaneous Activity and Afferent Refinement

283

Critical Periods: Enhanced Plasticity During Development

285

Heterosynaptic Depression and Synapse Elimination

286

Involvement of Intracellular Calcium

289

Calcium-Activated Second Messenger Systems

290

Gain Control

292

Homeostatic Plasticity: the More Things Change, the More they Stay the Same

293

Plasticity of Inhibitory Connections

294

Synaptic Influence on Neuron Morphology

296

Summary

298

References

298

Chapter 10: Behavioral development

304

Behavioral Ontogeny

304

The first Movements are Spontaneous

305

The Mechanism of Spontaneous Movements

306

More Complex Behavior is Assembled from the Integration of Simple Circuits

307

The role of Activity in the Emergence of Coordinated Behavior

311

Stage-specific Behaviors

313

Genetic Determinants of Behavior

315

Environmental Determinants of Behavioral Development

316

Beginning to Make Sense of the World

319

Asking Babies Questions (and Getting Some Answers!)

319

Acute Hearing

320

Sharp Eyesight

323

Sex-specific Behavior

325

Genetic Sex

326

Hormonal Control of Brain Gender

326

Singing in the Brain

328

Genetic Control of Brain Hender in Flies

328

From Genome to Brain Gender in Vertebrates?

329

Genomic Imprinting: The Ultimate in Parental Control

330

Hit the Ground Learning

332

Learning preferences from aversions

334

Skill Learning: It Don’t Come Easy

336

Getting information from one brain to another

338

Language

339

Summary

342

References

342

Molecules and Genes Index

348

Subject Index

352