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Spatial Data Modelling for 3D GIS

of: Alias Abdul-Rahman, Morakot Pilouk

Springer-Verlag, 2007

ISBN: 9783540741671 , 289 Pages

Format: PDF

Copy protection: DRM

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's

Price: 154,69 EUR



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Spatial Data Modelling for 3D GIS


 

Preface

5

Contents

6

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

11

1.1 Why does 3D GIS Matter?

11

1.2 The Need for 3D GIS

13

1.3 The Need for 3D Spatial Data Modelling

17

1.4 Problems Associated with Spatial Modelling for 3D GIS

19

1.5 Previous Work

20

1.6 Background to the 3D GIS Problem

23

Chapter 2 AN OVERVIEW OF 3D GIS DEVELOPMENT

24

2.1 GIS Functions

24

2.2 3D GIS

25

2.3 Recent Progress Made on 3D GIS

26

2.4 Commercially Available Systems and 3D GIS

27

2.5 Why is 3D GIS Difficult to Realise?

31

2.6 Discussion

32

Chapter 3 2D AND 3D SPATIAL DATA REPRESENTATIONS

33

3.1 Introduction

33

3.2 Classes of Object Representations

34

3.3 GIS Applicability of the Representations

45

3.4 The Selection Criteria

46

3.5 Vector and Raster Representation

49

3.6 Summary

50

Chapter 4 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF GEO- SPATIAL MODELLING

51

4.1 Spatial Data

52

4.2 Spatial Data Modelling

52

4.3 Models and Their Importance for Geoinformation

53

4.4 Components of Geo-spatial Model

55

4.5 Phases in Geo-spatial Modelling

56

4.6 Conceptual Design of a Geo-spatial Model

58

4.7 Logical Design of Geo-spatial Model

86

4.8 Summary

93

Chapter 5 THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

94

5.1 TIN-based (2.5D) Data Model

94

5.2 Properties of the TIN-based Data Model

97

5.3 TEN-based Data Model

101

5.4 Generalized n-dimensional Integrated Data Model

104

5.5 Single-theme and Multi-theme

108

5.6 Euler’s Characteristics

109

5.7 Discussion

114

Chapter 6 THE LOGICAL DESIGN

116

6.1 Relational Approach

116

6.2 Object-oriented Approach

123

6.3 Discussion

137

Chapter 7 OBJECT-ORIENTATION OF TINs SPATIAL DATA

139

7.1 Introduction

139

7.2 Object-oriented Concepts

139

7.3 Object-oriented TIN Tessellations

142

7.4 Object-oriented TINs Spatial Data Modelling

146

7.5 Object-oriented TIN Spatial Database Development

152

7.6 Object-oriented TIN-based Subsystems for GIS

155

7.7 Summary

156

Chapter 8 THE SUPPORTING ALGORITHMS

159

8.1 Introduction

159

8.2 Distance Transformation

159

8.3 Voronoi Tessellations

164

8.4 Triangulations (TINs)

169

8.5 Visualization

176

8.6 3D Distance Transformation

177

8.7 3D Voronoi Tessellation

182

8.8 Tetrahedron Network (TEN) Generation

187

8.9 Constrained Triangulations

189

8.10 Contouring Algorithm

196

8.11 Algorithms for Irregular Network Formation

202

8.11 Summary

210

Chapter 9 APPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL

212

9.1 Integration of Terrain Relief and Terrain Features

212

9.2 Creating an Integrated Database

214

9.3 A Spatial Query Example

217

9.4 Integrating with 3D Features

219

9.5 Integrating with Geo-scientific Data

224

9.6 Spatial Operators

226

9.7 Graphic Visualization

228

9.8 Virtual Reality

235

9.9 Discussion

235

Chapter 10 THE WEB AND 3D GIS

237

10.1 Introduction

237

10.2 Web 3D GIS

238

10.3 Management of 3D Spatial Data

242

10.4 GUI for 3D Visualization and Editing on the Web

244

10.5 Current and Possible Approaches in Urban Planning

252

10.6 Realized Browser-based Solutions

253

10.7 Stand-alone Solutions/Toolkits/Front-ends

258

10.8 Summary

259

Chapter 11 CONCLUSION AND FURTHER OUTLOOK

260

11.1 Summary

260

11.2 Further Research

267

References and Bibliography

270

Index

289