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A Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation of the Letter to Philemon in Light of the New Institutional Economics - An Exhortation to Transform a Master-Slave Economic Relationship into a Brotherly Loving Relationship


 

Cover

1

Preface

8

Table of Contents

10

List of Abbreviations

18

Chapter 1: Setting the Stage for Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation

20

1.1 Introduction

20

1.2 Thesis Statement

22

1.3 The Value of this Research

23

1.4 Interpretation History of the Letter to Philemon

23

1.4.1 Development and Insufficiencies of the “Runaway Hypothesis”

24

1.4.2 New Trend in Research

30

1.4.3 Short Conclusion: Contribution and Insufficiency of Previous Research

36

1.5 Methodology: The Application of Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation to the Letter to Philemon

38

1.5.1 Framework of Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation

38

1.5.2 Application of Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation in Interpreting the Letter to Philemon

42

1.5.3 Limitation and Corresponding Response of the Socio-rhetorical Model

43

Definition

44

The Problem of Genre

44

Missing Theology

45

Justification of New Texture

45

Integral or Segregated?

45

Risk of Running into Indeterminate Ways of Interpretation

46

1.6 Basics of the Letter to Philemon

46

1.6.1 The Story behind the Letter

47

1.6.2 Relationship with Other Letters of Paul

50

1.6.3 Concerning the Period and Context of this Study

51

1.6.4 Attitude toward Slavery: Metaphorical Use or Reality Addressed

52

1.7 Conclusion

53

Chapter 2: Inner Texture: Relationship Transformation as the Main Focus of the Letter to Philemon

54

2.1 Introduction

54

2.2 Materialistic Layer: Word Analysis

55

2.2.1 Main Focus: Relational Words

56

2.2.2 Main Argument: Love-Related Words

57

2.2.3 Theological Ground: Words with Theological Connotations

60

???????? and ????????

61

Faith

65

God-Related Words

66

2.2.4 Commerce-Related Words

66

2.3 Fabric Layer: Epistolary Analysis

67

2.3.1 The Structure of the Letter

68

2.3.2 Opening of the Letter to Philemon

68

2.3.3 Recipient Formula

70

2.3.4 Thanksgivings

71

2.3.5 Short Conclusion

73

2.4 Stylistic Layer: Rhetorical Analysis

73

2.4.1 Formal Rhetorical Analysis: F. F. Church and M. M. Mitchell

75

Exordium (Verses 4–7)

77

Proof (Verses 8–16)

77

New Direction Suggested by Formal Rhetorical Analysis

79

Conformance to the Deliberative Argumentation Identified by Margaret M. Mitchell

80

Beyond the Formal Rhetoric

81

2.5 Dialogue

83

Chapter 3: Intertexture: Theological and Ethical Thoughts of Paul

84

3.1 Introduction

84

3.2 Intertexture in the Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation of the Letter to Philemon: Theological and Ethical Thoughts of Paul

86

3.3 The Structure of Pauline Ethical Thought (1): Integral View of Indicative and Imperative

90

3.4 The Structure of Pauline Ethical Thought (2): The Three Motifs behind the Theology and Ethics of Paul

95

3.4.1 Eschatological Motif

95

3.4.2 Theological Motif

96

3.4.3 Christological Motif

98

3.5 The Content of Paul’s Ethical Thought: Love as a Guiding Principle for the Believing Community

100

3.5.1 Paul’s Use of ?????

100

3.6 The Structure of Love in Paul’s Thought

102

3.6.1 New Relationship with God: New Life in Love

102

3.6.2 New Relationship with the World: New Creation with Freedom to Love

104

3.6.3 New Relationship with New Community: New Bonding by Love

106

Romans 12–13: Eschatological Nature of Love for the Solidarity of a Congregation

107

1 Corinthians 8–11:1: Love as Self-Control for Others: Foundation of Exercising One’s Freedom

111

Galatians 5–6: Freedom with Working in Love

115

Short Summary

116

3.7 Intertextual Reading: Reading the Letter to Philemon in Paul’s Structure of Love

117

3.7.1 Model of Intertextual Reading of the Letter to Philemon

117

3.7.2 Basic Theological Thought: Reading the Letter to Philemon with Reference to the Integral View of Indicative and Imperative

118

3.7.3 Reading the Letter to Philemon with the Three Motifs as Reference

120

Eschatological Motif

121

Theological Motif

122

Christological Motif

123

3.7.4 Reading the Letter to Philemon in Paul’s Ethical Structure of Love

124

New Relationship with God: New Life in Love in the Letter to Philemon

124

New Relationship with the World: New Creation with Freedom to Love in the Letter to Philemon

125

New Relationship with the New Community: New Bonding by Love in the Letter to Philemon

126

3.8 Dialogue

128

Chapter 4: Economic Texture: Reading the Letter to Philemon in Light of the Economic Relationship Generated from the New Institutional Economics

130

4.1 Introduction

130

4.2 Methodology

132

4.2.1 Economic Texture

132

4.2.2 The Use of NIE as an Analysis Framework

135

4.2.3 The Significance of Institutions in Understanding Economic Relationships

139

4.2.4 Douglass North’s Model

139

4.3 Informal Institution: Exploitative in Nature

142

4.3.1 Economic Interest as the Dominant Consideration in the Roman Economy

143

The Development of Economic Interest as the Dominant Value

144

Result of Wars on Attitude toward Economic Benefit

145

4.3.2 Macroeconomic Environment: Growing Demand for Slaves

147

Magnitude of Development: Scale of the Roman Economy

148

Quality of Development: Growth in Trade

148

Income Inequality and the Nature of Exploitation

151

4.3.3 Ideological Justification: Philosophy and Social Values

152

Philosophical Justification of Roman Slavery

153

Social Value: Nature of Consumer City

155

4.3.4 Political System: How Rules Were Determined

157

Political Structure in the Late Roman Republic

157

Legal System

159

4.3.5 Implications for the Economic Relationship: Exploitative in Nature

160

4.4 Formal Institution: Objectifying Attitude toward Slaves

161

4.4.1 Definition of Slaves: Objectifying Slaves

162

4.4.2 Economic Motives for Objectifying Slaves

166

4.4.3 Owning Slaves: Classified as Res Mancipi

166

4.4.4 Acquisition and Transference of Slaves

169

4.4.5 The Exclusive Right to Use Slaves

170

4.4.6 Implication for Economic Relationship: Objectifying Slaves as Instruments

171

4.5 Managing Slaves as Labor: Manipulating Slaves in Practice

172

4.5.1 Economic Problems of Managing Slaves

173

General Situation

173

Specific Economic Reasons for Management Problems

175

4.5.2 NIE Basic Concepts Underlying the Management Problem of Slaves

176

Bounded Rationality

176

Opportunism

177

Asset Specificity

178

4.5.3 Diversity and the Mixed Nature of Slave Jobs

178

Farm Slaves: Extensiveness

179

Household Slaves: Penetrating Different Levels of Household Work

180

Slaves in Trade and Commerce: High Trust Required

185

Short Summary

187

4.5.4 Contractual Arrangements: Manipulating Slaves in Light of the Management Problems

188

Basics Facts about Manumission

188

Modes of Manumission

188

Economic Analysis of Manumission in Light of the NIE Theory

190

Basics of peculium

192

Incompleteness of peculium

193

Artificial Asset Specificity

194

NIE Interpretation of Slave-Managing Problems

195

4.6 Dialogue

195

4.7 Conclusion

196

Chapter 5: Synthesis: Reading the Body of the Letter to Philemon with the Three Textures in Mind

198

5.1 Introduction

198

5.2 Redefining the Problem Addressed by Paul in the Letter to Philemon

199

5.2.1 Redefining the Problem in Light of Paul’s Eschatological Motif: To Choose the New Value to Practice in this World

200

Choosing New Value in Light of Existing Institution: 1 Cor 7:19–24

201

Short Conclusion

205

5.2.2 Redefining the Problem in Light of Paul’s Theology: To Recognize and Accept the New Relationship

206

Conflict between the Economic Relationship and Loving Brotherhood Relationship

207

Exploitative Nature vs. Love as the Basis of a Relationship

207

View of Slaves as Objectified Instrument vs. Brotherhood as an Attitude in a Relationship

208

Manipulating vs. Freedom in Practice

208

5.2.3 Redefining the Problem in Light of Paul’s Christology: To Choose to Follow the Model of Paul and Christ in Practice

209

Imitation of Paul and Christ in the Letter to Philemon

210

Short Summary

210

5.3 Reading the Body of the Letter in Light of Different Textures

211

5.3.1 Analysis of the Body of the Letter to Philemon: Paul’s Rhetorical Argument Calls for a New Relationship

212

5.3.2 Verses 8–9: New Value of Love: To Challenge the Power of the Master

213

5.3.3 Verse 10: New Life in Christ: To Challenge the Legal Justification of Slavery

215

5.3.4 Verse 11: A Transformation of the Worldly Relationship: From Objectified Status to Personhood

217

5.3.5 Verses 12–14: Respecting One’s Freedom: Demonstrating Love in Action

219

5.3.6 Verses 15–16: Ultimate Request: Loving Brotherhood Relationship

222

The Use of “Beloved Brother” in Verse 16

227

5.3.7 Verse 17: New Form of Working Relationship: ???????? – Partnership in Christ

229

5.3.8 Verses 18–19: Clearing the Final Barrier: Forgo the Economic Benefit or Loss

232

5.3.9 Verses 20–21: Concluding Remarks: New Relationships in the Lord and in Christ

235

5.4 Conclusion

237

Chapter 6: Conclusion

238

6.1 Introduction

238

6.2 Summary of Arguments in Previous Chapters

239

6.3 Contributions and Future Directions Inspired by this Thesis

240

6.3.1 Methodological Breakthrough

240

6.3.2 Further Ways to Incorporate Economic Analysis in Biblical Studies

241

6.3.3 Reflection on Contemporary Capitalist Society

242

Working Relationship: Objectification

243

Incentive System: Another Form of Economic Compulsion

244

6.4 Conclusion

246

Bibliography

248

Ancient Sources

248

Secondary Literature

248

Index of Ancient Sources

258

1. Old Testament

258

2. New Testament

258

3. Greek and Roman Authors

260

Index of Modern Authors

262

Index of Names and Subjects

263