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Challenges to The Second Law of Thermodynamics - Theory and Experiment

of: Vladislav Capek, Daniel Sheehan

Springer-Verlag, 2006

ISBN: 9781402030161 , 356 Pages

Format: PDF, Read online

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Challenges to The Second Law of Thermodynamics - Theory and Experiment


 

Contents

8

Preface

14

References

16

Acknowledgements

17

1 Entropy and the Second Law

18

1.1 Early Thermodynamics

18

1.2 The Second Law: Twenty-One Formulations

20

1.3 Entropy: Twenty-One Varieties

30

1.4 Nonequilibrium Entropy

40

1.5 Entropy and the Second Law: Discussion

43

1.6 Zeroth and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

44

References

47

2 Challenges (1870-1980)

52

2.1 Maxwell’s Demon and Other Victorian Devils

52

2.2 Exorcising Demons

56

2.3 Inviolability Arguments

59

2.4 Candidate Second Law Challenges

65

References

68

3 Modern Quantum Challenges: Theory

70

3.1 Prolegomenon

70

3.2 Thermodynamic Limit and Weak Coupling

72

3.3 BeyondWeak Coupling: Quantum Correlations

84

3.4 Allahverdyan-Nieuwenhuizen Theorem

86

3.5 Scaling and Beyond

88

3.6 Quantum Kinetic and Non-Kinetic Models

92

3.7 Disputed Quantum Models

122

3.8 Kinetics in the DC Limit

123

3.9 Theoretical Summary

128

References

130

4 Low-Temperature Experiments and Proposals

134

4.1 Introduction

134

4.2 Superconductivity

134

4.3 Keefe CMCE Engine

138

4.4 Nikulov Inhomogeneous Loop

142

4.5 Bose-Einstein Condensation and the Second Law

151

4.6 Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

152

References

158

5 Modern Classical Challenges

162

5.1 Introduction

162

5.2 Gordon Membrane Models

163

5.3 Denur Challenges

171

5.4 Crosignani-Di Porto Adiabatic Piston

176

5.5 Trupp Electrocaloric Cycle

181

5.6 Liboff Tri-Channel

186

5.7 Thermodynamic Gas Cycles

188

References

189

6 Gravitational Challenges

192

6.1 Introduction

192

6.2 Asymmetric Gravitator Model

194

6.3 Loschmidt Gravito-Thermal Effect

219

References

224

7 Chemical Nonequilibrium Steady States

228

7.1 Introduction

228

7.2 Chemical Paradox and Detailed Balance

231

7.3 Pressure Gradients and Reaction Rates

235

7.4 Numerical Simulations

241

7.5 Laboratory Experiments

244

7.6 Discussion and Outlook

250

References

254

8 Plasma Paradoxes

256

8.1 Introduction

256

8.2 Plasma I System

257

8.3 Plasma II System

268

8.4 Jones and Cruden Criticisms

279

References

283

9 MEMS/NEMS Devices

284

9.1 Introduction

284

9.2 Thermal Capacitors

285

9.3 Linear Electrostatic Motor (LEM)

294

9.4 Hammer and Anvil Model

308

9.5 Experimental Prospects

317

References

318

10 Special Topics

320

10.1 Rubrics for Classical Challenges

320

10.2 Thermosynthetic Life

325

10.3 Physical Eschatology

336

10.4 The Second Law Mystique

344

References

348

Color Plates

352

Index

360